Alexander: December and Winter Chronology

Alexander’s Chronology

Nov-Dec Alexander wins Greek support for war against Persia (Livius)

Alexander holds festivals in Dion and Aegae (Livius)

Winter Alexander conquers Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia and Phrygia (Landmark Arrian*, Livius)
Alexander son of Aeropos is arrested (Landmark Arrian)
Pisidians harass Macedonian army and are subdued (Landmark Arrian)

Dec (?) Darius tries to negotiate with Alexander (Livius)

Winter Alexander asks Tyrians if he can enter the city to sacrifice to Herakles; he is denied access (Landmark Arrian)
Siege of Tyre begins (Landmark Arrian)


Winter Alexander enters Egypt (Landmark Arrian, Michael Wood**)
Alexander visits Siwah (Landmark Arrian)
Alexander founds Alexandria (Landmark Arrian)
Green suggests that the foundation of Alexandria could have taken place in April
Alexander is informed of the Persian navy’s defeat in the Aegean (Landmark Arrian)
Mid-winter Alexander visits Siwah (Wood)
Green has Alexander’s visit take place in early Spring

Early Dec Alexander takes Susa unopposed (Peter Green***)
15th Dec Abulites surrenders Susa to Alexander (Livius)
22nd Dec Alexander leaves Susa (Livius)
Winter Alexander reaches Persia (Wood)
Alexander forces the Susian Gates (Green)
Alexander takes Susa (Landmark Arrian)
Alexander subdues the Ouxioi (Landmark Arrian)
Alexander passes the Persian Gates and enters Persepolis (Landmark Arrian)

Winter Spitamenes’ second revolt is put down (Landmark Arrian)


Winter Alexander at Zariaspa (Green, Livius, Wood)
Bessus is mutilated ahead of being executed (Landmark Arrian)
Bessus is executed (Green)

Spitamenes is captured (Livius)
Alexander in Maracanda (Livius) and Nautaca (Livius, Wood)
Alexander captures the Rock of Sisimithres (Wood)
Alexander returns to Zariaspa (Wood)
Callisthenes objects to Alexander’s proskynesis (Landmark Arrian)
In Nautaca, Alexander appoints new satraps (Landmark Arrian)


Winter Hephaestion to the Indus River via the Khyber Pass (Wood)
Alexander enters Swat Valley (Wood)
Alexander at Nysa (Wood)
The Dionysus episode (Green) i.e. Macedonian army gets drunk en masse
Alexander attacks the Massaga (Wood)
Campaign in the Swat Valley (Wood)


December Alexander campaigns against the Mallians (Wood)
Siege of the Mallian city  (Wood)
The Landmark Arrian gives the Mallian campaign as happening during the winter of 326/5

December Satraps punished for wrong-doing (Green, Livius)
Alexander joins up with Craterus in Carmania (Livius)
Macedonian army reaches Hormuz (Wood)
Winter Alexander joins up with Craterus and Nearchus (Landmark Arrian)
Alexander orders the restoration of Cyrus the Great’s Tomb (Landmark Arrian)
Orxines is executed (Landmark Arrian)

Winter Alexander requests divine honours for Hephaestion (Livius)
Alexander campaigns against Cossaeans (Landmark Arrian, Livius)


* The Landmark Arrian Ed. James Romm (Pantheon Books 2010)
** Wood In the Footsteps Of Alexander the Great A Journey from Greece to India (BBC Books 2004)
*** Green Alexander of Macedon 356 – 323 B.C. A Historical Biography (University of California Press 1991)



  • This chronology is part of an on-going work. If you see any mistakes or omissions please feel free to let me know.
  • As can be seen, I have noted where The Landmark Arrian, Livius, Michael Wood and Peter Green have disagreed on the dates; these notes, however, are not comprehensive. My focus has been on recording what each author has said rather than comparing it to the others.


Modern Names
The Mallian city – Multan
Nysa – Jelalabad
Zariaspa aka Bactra – Balkh

Categories: Chronology of Alexander's Life | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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