Alexander: June / Summer Chronology

Alexander’s Chronology

Summer Philip II is assassinated; Alexander III succeeds him (Michael Wood*)
Summer Artaxerxes IV murdered; Darius III becomes Great King (Livius, Peter Green**)
Summer (Late) Alexander holds a meeting of the League of Corinth and is confirmed as Captain-General of the war against Persia (Peter Green)

Summer Alexander’s Thracian Campaign (Livius)
Summer Memnon pushes the Macedonian advance guard back in Asia Minor (Livius)

June (Early) Battle of the Granicus River (Livius)
Summer Alexander takes Sardis and Ephesus (Landmark Arrian***)
Summer Alexander takes Miletus; he disbands his navy (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Macedonians take Halicarnassus except for its citadel (Landmark Arrian)

March – June Memnon’s naval offensive ends (Livius)
April – July Alexander in Gordium (Livius)
Summer Alexander crosses Asia Minor (Michaal Wood)
Summer Alexander undoes the Gordian Knot (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander falls gravely ill after swimming in the Cydnus River (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander takes Cilicia; the citadel of Halicarnassus falls to the Macedonians (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander brings factional strife to an end in Mallus (Landmark Arrian)

January – July The Siege of Tyre continues (Livius, Michael Wood)
?June Alexander rejects Darius’ second written peace offer (Peter Green)
Winter – Summer The Siege of Tyre (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Darius writes to Alexander offering him a large amount of territory (to end the war); Alexander rejects the offer (Landmark Arrian)

June Alexander marches through Phoenicia and Syria (Livius)
Summer Alexander crosses Syria and enters northern Iraq (Michael Wood)

June Darius leaves Ecbatana for Bactria (Livius)
June (Early) Alexander departs from Persepolis for Ecbatana; Darius heads towards Bactria; at Ecbatana, Alexander dismisses his Greek allies; Alexander leaves Parmenion in Ecbatana with Harpalus as treasurer; pursuit of Darius continues (Peter Green)
Summer Alexander orders the burning of the Persian palace complex at Persepolis (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Pursuit of Darius and his assassination in Media; after finding his body, Alexander orders Darius to be given a royal burial (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Darius is assassinated; Alexander marches to the Caspian Sea (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander defeats Tapourians; more Persians surrender; Mardians defeated; in Hyrcania, Greek mercenaries surrender; Zadracarta: Alexander learns that Bessus has declared himself Great King (Landmark Arrian)

1st June Around this time Alexander makes his way to the Oxus River (Livius)
June Alexander captures Bessus (Livius)
June Alexander proceeds to the Jaxartes (Tanais) River (Livius)
June Alexander crosses the Oxus; Macedonian veterans and Thessalian volunteers are dismissed; Bessus surrenders; Alexander marches to Maracanda; Spitamenes revolts; Spitamenes wipes out Macedonian detachment (Peter Green)
Summer (Early) After crossing the Hindu Kush, Alexander proceeds to Balkh (i.e. Bactra/Zariaspa) (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander crosses the Oxus River (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander captures Bessus (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander arrives at Samarkand (i.e. Maracanda) (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander reaches the Jaxartes (Tanais) River (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander founds Alexandria-the-Furthest (i.e. Eschate) (Michael Wood, Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander quells an uprising (along the Jaxartes River) (Landmark Arrian)

Summer Macedonian campaign in Bactria and Sogdia (Livius, Landmark Arrian)
Summer Spitamenes continues his guerrilla campaign (Landmark Arrian)
Summer (Late) Alexander murders Black Cleitus in a drunken row (Michael Wood)

Summer (Early) Alexander crosses Hindu Kush via the Kushan Pass; Indian invasion begins (Peter Green)
The Macedonian army reunites in Bactra (Livius)
Summer The failed introduction of the practice of proskynesis (Livius)
Summer Alexander marries Roxane (Livius)
Summer Alexander crosses the Hindu Kush again and meets Taxiles (Landmark Arrian)
Summer A division of the army under Hephaestion’s and Perdiccas’ joint-command march to Peucalaotis
Summer (Late) The Pages Plot; Callisthenes’ execution (Livius)
Summer – Early Autumn Alexander spends six months in the Kabul Valley at Begram (Michael Wood)

June (Late) Campaigning in the Punjab (Michael Wood)
June (Late) Alexander advances to the Hyphasis (modern day Beas) River (Michael Wood)
26th June Around this time Alexander crosses the Acesines River (Livius)
Summer Many of the Macedonian fleet damaged by strong currents on the Acesines river (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander pursues the rebel Poros (not the king of the Hydaspes battle); Alexander razes Sangala (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander reaches the Hyphasis river where his army refuses to go any further (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Appointment of Abisares as satrap (Landmark Arrian)

June Craterus departs from the main army and takes his men by an inland route to Carmania (Livius, Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander reaches the Indus delta (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander explores the Indus delta and coastline (Landmark Arrian)

Summer Susa: Purge of corrupt satraps; Susa weddings; Alexander remits his soldiers debts; tension within Macedonian army about Alexander’s orientalism grows (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander issues the Exiles’ Decree (Livius)
Summer Mass weddings at Susa (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander himself marries a daughter of Darius (i.e. Stateira II) (Michael Wood)
Summer Opis: Macedonian army rebels; Alexander reconciles with army and holds a special banquet to celebrate; Craterus given orders to take 10,000 veterans home – he departs (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander visits the famous horses of Nysia (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander explores the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates (Landmark Arrian)

10th June Alexander dies in Babylon (Michael Wood, Landmark Arrian)
11th June Alexander dies in Babylon (Livius, Landmark Arrian)
Summer Alexander dies in Babylon following an 11 day illness (fever) (Landmark Arrian)

* Michael Wood In the Footsteps Of Alexander the Great A Journey from Greece to India (BBC Books 2004)
**Peter Green Alexander of Macedon 356 – 323 B.C. A Historical Biography (University of California Press 1991)
*** The Landmark Arrian Ed. James Romm (Pantheon Books 2010)

Categories: Chronology of Alexander's Life | Leave a comment

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