Alexander: July / Summer Chronology

Alexander’s Chronology

20th July Alexander son of Philip is born (Michael Wood)
20th or 26th July Alexander son of Philip is born (Peter Green)

Summer Philip II is assassinated; Alexander III succeeds him (Michael Wood)
Summer Artaxerxes IV murdered; Darius III becomes Great King (Livius)
Summer (Late) Alexander calls a meeting of the Hellenic League. He is elected Hegemon (Peter Green)

Summer Alexander’s Thracian Campaign; Memnon pushes the Macedonian advance guard back in Asia Minor (Livius)

July Alexander captures Miletus (Livius)
Summer Sardis, Ephesus and Miletus fall to Alexander; Alexander disbands navy; Halicarnassus captured (except for citadel) (Landmark Arrian)

April – July Alexander in Gordium (Livius)
July Memnon dies (Livius)
July (Late) Alexander leaves Gordium; Darius III leaves Babylon [ultimately for Issus] (Livius)
July – September Pharnabazus resumes the Persian naval offensive (Livius)
Summer Alexander marches through central Asia Minor; Unties/cuts knot at Gordion (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander falls ill suddenly; Alexander victorious in Cilicia; Citadel of Halicarnassus falls; Alexander brings peace to Mallus (Landmark Arrian)

January – July The Siege of Tyre (Livius, Michael Wood)
29th July Tyre falls (Peter Green)
July The Fall of Tyre (Livius)
Winter – Summer The Siege of Tyre (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Darius offers peace terms to Alexander who rejects them (Landmark Arrian)

July Alexander crosses the Euphrates River (Livius)
July – August Alexander arrives at Thapsacus; Darius leaves Babylon (Peter Green)
Summer Alexander marches through Syria and enters northern Iraq (Michael Wood)

17th July Around this time, Darius III is assassinated; Bessus declares himself king [regnal name: Artaxerxes V] (Livius)
July (Later than the 15th) Darius III is found dead; Bessus declares himself Great King (Peter Green)
July – August Alexander marches for Hyrcania (Peter Green)
Summer Darius III is assassinated; Alexander marches to the Caspian Sea (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander orders that Darius III be given a royal burial; Alexander defeats Tapourians and Mardians; Alexander takes surrender of Greek mercenaries; Alexander hears that Bessus has declared himself king (Landmark Arrian)

July Alexander founds Alexandria Eschate [Alexandria-the-Furthest]; Sogdian [and Bactrian] revolt; Battle of the Jaxartes; Reorganisation of the cavalry (Livius)
Summer (Early) Alexander arrives in Balkh [i.e. Zariaspa/Bactra]
Summer Crossing of Oxus River; Bessus is captured; Arrival in Maracanda; Arrival at Jaxartes [i.e. Tanais]; founding of Alexandria Eschate (Michael Wood)
Summer Founding of Alexandria Eschate; Uprising quelled (Landmark Arrian)

Summer Macedonian campaign in Bactria and Sogdia (Livius)
Summer (Late) Alexander murders Black Cleitus during a drunken row (Michael Wood)
Summer Macedonian army sweeps across Sogdiana [and Bactria] rooting out resistance; In Bactria, Spitamenes conducts semi-guerilla warfare (Landmark Arrian)

Summer The Macedonian army reunites at Bactria; The Introduction of the practice of proskynesis; Alexander marries Roxane (Livius)
Summer (Early) Alexander invades India (Peter Green)
Summer (Late) The Pages Plot; Callisthenes’ execution (Livius)
Summer – Early Autumn Alexander spends six months in the Kabul Valley at Begram (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander meets Taxiles in Hindu Kush; Hesphaestion and Perdiccas take a division to the Indus via Peukelaotis (Landmark Arrian)

July (Late) Mutiny at the Hyphasis River (Livius)
?July Macedonian mutiny at the Hyphasis River; return to Hydaspes; reinforcements from Greece arrive (Peter Green)
Summer Many Macedonian ships damaged in Akesinos river; Alexander pursues the renegade Porus [not the king of the Hydaspes battle]; Alexander captures Sangala; The Macedonian Army mutinies at the Hyphasis river; Abisares appointed satrap (Landmark Arrian)

c.15th July Peithon et al arrive at Patala (Livius)
Summer Alexander arrives at the Indus Delta (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander sends Craterus west by an inland route; Alexander explores the Indus delta and coast (Landmark Arrian)

Summer Alexander issues the Exiles’ Decree (Livius)
Summer Mass Weddings in Susa; Alexander himself marries a daughter of Darius [i.e. Stateira II] (Michael Wood)
Summer Mutiny at Opis; Reconciliation banquet; Craterus is sent back to Macedon with discharged veterans; Alexander sees the famous Nysaean horses (Landmark Arrian)

Summer Alexander dies after an 11 day fever in Babylon (Landmark Arrian)

Michael Wood In the Footsteps Of Alexander the Great A Journey from Greece to India (BBC Books 2004)
Peter Green Alexander of Macedon 356 – 323 B.C. A Historical Biography (University of California Press 1991)
The Landmark Arrian Ed. James Romm (Pantheon Books 2010)

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