Alexander: August / Summer Chronology

Alexander’s Chronology

338
2nd August The Battle of Chaeronea. United army of Thebes and Athens is defeated by Philip II (Alexander fights on the left wing) (Michael Wood)

336
Summer Philip II is assassinated. Alexander III succeeds him (Michael Wood)
Summer Artaxerxes IV murdered; Darius III becomes Great King (Livius)
Summer (Late) Alexander confirmed as ‘captain-general of war against Persia by the Corinthian League (Peter Green)

335
Summer Alexander’s Thracian Campaign; Memnon pushes the Macedonian advance guard back in Asia Minor (Livius)

334
August The Siege of Halicarnassus gets underway (Livius)
Summer Alexander takes Sardis, Ephesus, and Miletus (by siege); he disbands his navy; The city of Halicanassus – excluding its citadel – is captured (Landmark Arrian)

333
July – September Pharnabzus continues the Persian naval offensive (Livius)
Summer Alexander crosses central Asia Minor; he cuts/slashes the Gordian Knot (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander falls ill [after bathing in the Cydnus River]; Alexander takes Cilicia; The citadel at Halicarnassus falls; Alexander settles Mallus (Landmark Arrian)

332
Summer
Darius makes a second attempt to negotiate an end to the war [the first was in Autumn 333]. Alexander rejects his offer

331
July – August Alexander arrives at Thapsacus; Darius marches out of Babylon (Peter Green)
August – September
Alexander crosses Mesopotamia (Livius)
Summer Alexander crosses modern day Syria and enters northern Iraq (Michael Wood)

330
July – August Alexander marches on Hyrcania (Peter Green)
August (Late) Alexander marches on Drangiana [i.e. Lake Seistan]; The Philotas Affair; From Arachosia to Parapamisadae (Peter Green)
August – September Alexander campaigns in Hyrcania, Parthia and Aria (Livius)
Summer Alexander orders Darius’ body to be given a royal burial; Alexander defeats Tapourians; Sundry Persians surrender; Mardians surrender; Greek mercenaries surrender; Alexander receives word that Bessus has declared himself king (Landmark Arrian)
Summer Darius III is assassinated; Alexander advances to the Caspian Sea (Michael Wood)

329
Summer (Early) After crossing the Hindu Kush, Alexander makes his way to Balkh [i.e. Bactra/Zariaspa] (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander crosses the Oxus River; captures Bessus; Alexander arrives at Samarkand [i.e. Maracanda]; Alexander reaches the Jaxartes [Tanais] River; founds Alexandria the Furthest [i.e. Eschate] (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexandria the Furthest is founded; a great rebellion [along the Jaxartes] is quelled (Landmark Arrian)

328
Summer The Bactria and Sogdia campaign continues (Livius; Landmark Arrian)
Summer Spitamenes conducts his semi-guerrilla war against Macedonian army (Landmark Arrian)
Summer (Late) Alexander murders Black Cleitus during a drunken row (Michael Wood)

327
Summer (Early) [Second] crossing of the Hindu Kush via Kushan Pass; Beginning of the Indian campaign (Peter Green)
Summer
The Macedonian army reunites in Balkh; the introduction of the practice of proskynesis; Alexander marries Roxane (Livius)
Summer Alexander meets Taxiles in Hindu Kush; Macedonian army divides between Alexander and Hephaestion and Perdiccas. The latter two take their part of the army to Peucelaotis (Landmark Arrian)
Summer (Late) The Pages Plot; Callisthenes’ execution (Livius)
Summer – Early Autumn Alexander spends six months in the Kabul Valley (Michael Wood)

326
Summer Numerous Macedonian ships and boats are damaged by the strong current on the Acesines river; Alexander pursues a renegade king named Porus (not the king of the Hydaspes river); Sangala is destroyed; Macedonian army refuses to go any further east at the Hyphasis river; Abisares appointed satrap (Landmark Arrian)
Summer (Late) The Macedonian army mutinies at the Hyphasis River (Livius)

325
August (Late) Alexander sets out for Carmania (Livius)
Summer Alexander arrives at the delta of the Indus River (Michael Wood)
Summer Alexander sends Craterus and part of the army west [via an inland route]; Alexander explores the delta of the Indus river by ship (Landmark Arrian)

324
August The Opis Mutiny (Livius)
Summer Reorganisation of Macedonian army; Opis Mutiny; Craterus [and 10,000] veterans sent home; Craterus is ordered to replace Antipater; Alexander sees the horses of Nysia
Summer
Alexander issues the Exiles’ Decree; Craterus and [the 1o,000] veterans set out for Macedon (Livius)
Summer Mass Weddings at Susa. As part of the ceremony, Alexander marries Stateira II, daughter of Darius [and Parysatis, grand-daughter of Artaxerxes III Ochus] (Michael Wood)

Michael Wood In the Footsteps Of Alexander the Great A Journey from Greece to India (BBC Books 2004)
Livius
Peter Green Alexander of Macedon 356 – 323 B.C. A Historical Biography (University of California Press 1991)
The Landmark Arrian Ed. James Romm (Pantheon Books 2010)

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